Ensuring Quality Basic Education in Nigeria

                                                     Allowing students to express themselves in the language they know will improv...


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Allowing students to express themselves in the language they know will improve the quality of scholarship in  all  the  subjects  taught  in the Junior Secondary  Schools in  Nigeria. The  poor  performance  of  students in their  subjects  areas,   particularly at  the  Basic,  may  not  always  be  due  to lack  of  intelligence  or  ability   in  these  subjects.  Their  insufficient  mastery  of  the  tool   for  communicating  their  ideas  could  be  responsible  for  this.  But  with  growing  awareness  of  the  problem, the National  Policy  on  Education  stipulates  that    every   child  shall be  taught  in  the  mother  tongue  or  language  of  the  immediate  community  for  the  first  four  years  of  basic  education.  In  addition,  it is  expected  that  every  child  shall  learn  one  Nigerian  language”     (NPE, 2013).
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The National Institute of  Nigerian  Languages  was established  as an  inter- University  to develop, promote  and  preserve  Nigerian  Languages. Despite the  efforts  of the  institute in  research, teaching,  documentation  and  coordination  of  studies  in  Nigerian  Languages,  most  Nigerian  children  cannot understand  write  and  speak  their  indigenous languages  fluently.  The  Executive  Director  of  the  institute,  Professor  Obiajulu  Emejulu  blames  government,  parents   and  churches  for  declining  use  of  indigenous languages.  In  his  words,                Government  must  act  fast  before  Nigeria’s  remaining  native  languages  die”.  He is very  concerned  over  the  future  of  Nigerian  languages  which  are now termed    endangered species”.
It is  unfortunate  that  the  Colonial  government  didn’t  believe  in  indigenous  languages  as  agents  of  mass  education,  mass  literacy,  and  technological  development  and  suppressed  the  languages.  In  those  days,  students  were  punished  for  speaking  the  indigenous  language.  The derogatory  name – vernacular,  was  given  to  the  indigenous  language. Scholars  of  those  years  would  rather  take  pride  in  speaking  “Queen’s  English”  than  speaking  the  indigenous  languages.
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Globalization  has  widened  the  challenges of  indigenous  languages  more  in  the  present  time  than during  the  colonial  period. This  is  because  there is  more  contacts  with  the  outside  world  which  makes  international  languages  such as  English  and  French  languages  a  must  tool  for  communication,  diplomacy  and  international  transactions.
A  study  of  Nigeria’s  education  system  shows  that  most  Basic  education  graduates  cannot  read  nor  write  correctly  after  ten  years  in  school  (  one  year Early  Child  Care  Development  Education (ECCDE);  six  years  Primary  Education  and  three years  Upper  Basic  Education).  There  is  need  that  the  focus  should  now  shift  from  quantity  to  quality;  from  competence  to  performance;  from  theory  to  practical.
The  crisis  of  out-of-school  children in  Nigeria  is  a  crisis  of  children  aged  3- 14  years. The  ability  of  children  in  school  to  read  with  comprehension  should  be  compared  on  a  year  to  year  basis.   Going  the  Pakistan  way,  it  falls  on  Nigeria  to  encourage  education  in  mother  tongues.  It  has  been  observed  that  some  out-of – school  children  who  are  perpetually  in  their  parents  tutelage  are  better  traditionally  educated  and  exposed  to their mother  tongue.   They  are   naturally  intelligent  and  possess  natural  undiluted  wisdom.  However,  it  is  not  surprising  that  there  are  children  who  are  in  school  and  learning  nothing.  This  is  because  those  who  do  go  to  school  are  not  learning  much  as  a  result  of  being  taught  in  a  second  foreign  language.  Many  cannot  read  a  sentence  after  years  in  school.  This  is  a  global  problem  caused  by  the  use  of  foreign  languages  in  education.  This  is  testified  by  British  Council  survey  which  shows  that  94  per cent  of  English – medium  private  school  teachers  in  Punjab,  Pakistan  do  not do  not  speak  English.
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Teachers  are  bound  to  encounter  some  problems  in  the  strategies  used  in implementing  Mother  Tongue- Based  Instruction  in  a multilingual  classrooms  in  Nigeria in  quest  to  ensure  quality  Basic  education.  According  to  Lartec,J.K.,  Belisario,  A.M.,  Bendanillo, J.P.,  Binas-o, H.K.,  Bucang,  N.O.,  &  Cammagay,  J. L. (2014),  the  use  of  mother  tongue  in  teaching  in  a  multilingual  setting  such as in  Nigeria,  affects  the  way  pupils  learn.  These  scholars  insist  that  it  is  necessary  to  employ  teaching  strategies  that  not  only  adapt  to  the  interplay  of  the  different  cultures  and  languages,  but  at  the  same  time  give  importance  to  them.  For  effective  and  efficient  teaching  and  learning  in  mother  tongue  education,  strategies  such  as  translation  of  the  target  language  to  mother  tongue,  utilization  of  multilingual  teaching,  use  of  lingua-franca,  improvising  of  instructional  materials  written  in  mother  tongue,  remediation  of  instruction  and  use  of  literary   piece  written  in  mother  tongue  as  motivation. 
Some  problems  encountered  by  the  teachers  in  implementing  mother  tongue  -based  instruction  include  absence  of  books  written  in  mother  tongue  lack  of  vocabulary  and  lack  of  teacher  training.  Some  or  most  of  these  problems  have  been  taken  care  of  in  the  three  major  officially  approved  Nigerian  languages :  Ibo,  Hausa,  Yoruba  and  others  such  as  Efik / Ibibio,   Tiv,  Fulfulde,  Urhobo,  Kanuri.  It  is  only  the  minority  and  endangered  languages  that  still  suffer  marginalization  of  usage.  
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The  National  Institute  for  Nigerian  Languages  (NINLAN)  has  gone  a  step  further  to  offer  some  programs  in  order  to  alleviate  the  problems  encountered  in  the  teaching  and  learning  in  mother  tongue and  of  mother  tongue   in  Nigeria.  In line  with  its  mandates,  the  programs  are undergraduate  degree  programs,  post  graduate  programs,  NINLAN  Consult,  NINLAN  Acculturation  programs.  Under  the  Academic  programs  are  School  of  Arts,  School  of  Education,  School  of  Communication,  Translation  Studies,  and  Nigerian  Languages. 
While  efforts  are  being  made  to  alleviate  the  afore  mentioned  problems,  the  challenges  to  teaching  mother  tongue  and  teaching  in  mother  tongue  in  schools  are  compounded  by  the  migration  of  people  to  urban  areas.  This  implies  further  language  loss  and  cultural  erosion.  Young  generations  in  cities  are  less  likely  to  speak  their  mother  tongues.  It  falls  on  the  parents  to  guard  against  this  and  teach  their  children  mother  tongue  right  from  home.
It  cannot  be  overemphasized  that  respecting  indigenous  languages  in  education  is  core  to  reducing  exclusion  and  increasing  inclusion  in the  education  sector  most  especially  at  the  Basic  level.  Indigenous  languages  have  been  hailed  globally  as  important  and  as  the  best  means  of  achieving  quality  education.  Above  all,  indigenous  languages  make  it  possible  to  realize  the  importance  of  incorporating  traditional  knowledge  into  schools.   

                                                       References
Lartec, J.K. et al. ( 2014 ).  Strategies  and  problems  encountered  by  teachers  in  implementing  mother  tongue – based instruction  in  multilingual classroom. IAFOR  Journal  of  Language Learning. 1 (1).
Tunde, A. ( 2020 ).  Government,  parents,  churches to  blame  for  declining  use  of  indigenous  language.  Interview, theeditor@punchng.com

 

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EDUINFOONLINE: Ensuring Quality Basic Education in Nigeria
Ensuring Quality Basic Education in Nigeria
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